Vitamins & Minerals Chart

CALCIUM Prevents osteoporosis. The prinicipal mineral of bones and teeth. Also acts in normal muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, blood clotting, blood pressure and immune defenses. Calcium and phosphorus work together for healthy bones and teeth. Calcium and magnesium work together for cardiovascular health. In order for calcium to be absorbed the body must have sufficient vitamin D. Milk and milk products, oysters, small fish (with bones) tofu (bean curd), greens, legumes.
PHOSPHOROUS Phosphorous is important in cells' genetic material, in the cell membrane as phospholipids in energy transfer and buffering systems. Aid in growth and body repair. Promote healthy gums and teeth. Essential for normal kidney functioning. Needed for transfer of nerve impulses. Vitamin D and calcium are essential for proper phosphorous functioning. Involved in virtually all physiological chemical reactions. Fish, poultry, meat, whole grains, eggs, nuts, seeds.
MAGNESIUM A factor involved in bone mineralization, the building of protein, enzyme action, normal muscular contraction, transmission of nerve impulses and maintenance of teeth. Necessary for calcium and vitamin C metabolism as well as that of phosphorous, sodium and potassium. Important for converting blood sugar into energy. Chelated magnesium and calciium work well together. Also with vitamin A and phosphorous. Unmilled grains, figs, almonds, nuts seeds, dark-green vegetables, bananas.
SODIUM Sodium, chloride and potassium (electrolytes) maintain cells' normal fluid balance and acid-base balance in the body. Sodium is critical to nerve impulse transmission. Sodium aids in keeping calcium and other minerals in the blood soluble. High intakes of sodium will result in a depletion of potassium. Salt, shellfish, carrots, beets, artichokes, dried beef, kidney, bacon.
CHLORIDE Chloride is also part of the hydrochloric acid found in the stomach, necessary for proper digestion. Aids in the cleaning of body wastes by helping the liver function. Works with sodium and potassium in a compound form. Table salt, kelp, olives.
POTASSIUM Potassium facilitates reactions, including the making of protein; the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance; the support of cell integrity; the transmission of nerve impulses; and the contraction of muscles, including the heart. Helps dispose of body wastes. Assists in reducing blood pressure. Acts as a natural diuretic. Magnesium aids in the absorption of potassium. Citrus fruits, cantaloupe, tomatoes, watercress, all green leafy vegetables, mint leaves, sunflower seeds, bananas, potatoes.
SULFUR A compound of certain amino acids; part of the vitamins biotin and thiamin and the hormone insulin; combines with toxic substances to form harmless compounds; stabilizes, protein shape by forming sulfur- sulfur bridges. Aids the liver in bile secretion. Not readily available as food supplement. Works best with B-complex vitamins for basic metabolism. Lean beef, dried beans, fish, eggs, cabbage.


IODINE A component of the thyroid hormone thyroxine, which helps to regulate growth, development and metabolic rate. Aids in fat metabolism. Is also an antiseptic. A multi-vitamin is a good form of iodine. Natural kelp is a good source of supplemental iodine. Kelp, vegetables grown in iodine-rich soil, onions and all seafood.
IRON Part of the protein hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood; part of the protein myoglobin in muscles which make oxygen available for muscle contraction; necessary for the use of energy. Prevents Anemia. Copper, cobalt, magnese and vitamin C are necessary to assimilate iron. Iron is necessary for porper metabolization of B vitamins. Pork liver, beef kidney, heart and liver, dried apricots, red meat, egg yolks, oysters, nuts, beans, asparagus, molasses, oatmeal.
ZINC Part of insulin and many enzymes; involved in making genetic material and proteins, immune reaction, transport of vitamin A, taste perception, wound healing, the making of sperm and normal fetal development. Gets rid of white spots on the fingernails. Help decrease cholesterol deposits. Help avoid prostate problems. Counters viral attacks. Chelated zinc and zinc picolinate are the best forms of supplement zinc. Zinc works best with vitamin A, calcium, and phosphorus. Also available in combination with vitamin C, magnesium, and the B- complex vitamins. Meat, liver, seafood(oyesters) wheat germ brewer's yeast, pumpkin seeds, eggs, nonfat dry milk, ground mustard.
SELENIUM Part of an enzyme that breaks down reactive chemicals that harm cells; works with vitamin E. Slows down the aging and hardening of tissues through oxidation. Alleviates hot flashes and menopausal distress. Help in treatment and prevention of dandruff. Possibly neutralize certain carcinogens and provide protection from some cancers. Vitmain E and selenium are synergistic. Both antioxidants. Seafood, kidney, liver, wheat germ, bran, tuna fish, onions, tomatoes, broccoili.
FLOURIDE Helps form bones and teeth; confers decay resistance on teeth. Not ordinarily found in multimineral supplements. Do not take additional flouride unless it is prescribed by a physician or dentist. Flouridated drinking water, seafood, and tea.
CHROMIUM Associated with insulin; needed for energy release from glucose. Help prevent and lower high blood pressure. Work as a deterrent for diabetes. Helps bring protein to whereit's needed. May be found in multi-mineral preparations. GTF and chromium picolinate are the preferred forms found as supplements. Chelated zinc substitutes work well for deficient chromium. Meat, unrefined grains, vegetable oils, wheat germ, corn oil, clams, chicken.
COPPER Helps form hemoglobin; part of several enzymes. Makes the amino acid tyrosine usable, allowing it to work as the pigmenting factor for the hair and skin. Keep your energy up by aiding in effective iron absorption. Essential for the utilization of vitamin C. Dried beans, peas, whole wheat, prunes, organ meat, shrimp, and most seafood.


VITAMIN A OTHER NAMES: Retinol, retnoic acid; Main precursor is betacarotene. Vision; health of cornea, epithelial cells, mucous membranes, skin health; bone and tooth growth; reproduction; hormone synthesis and regulation; immunity. Beta- carotene: antioxidant. Requires fats and minerals to be properly absorbed by the dogestive tract. Works best with vitamin D, B-complex, vitamin E, calcium, phosphorus, and zinc. Also increase absorption of Selenium. Retinol: forified milk, cheese, cream, butter, fortified margarine, eggs, liver. Beta-carotene: spinach and other dark leafy greens; broccoli; deep orange fruits and vegetables.
VITAMIN D OTHER NAMES: Calciferol, cholecalciferol, dihydroxy; Percursor is cholesterol. Mineralization of bones (raises blood calcium and phosphorous via absorption from digestive tract and by withdrawing calcium from bones and stimulating retention by kidneys. Regulates Calcium metabolism. Absorbed through fats and intestinal walls. Vitamin D works best with vitamin A, vitamin C, choline, calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D helps properly utilize calcium and phosphorus necessary for strong bones and teeth. Self-synthesis with sunlight; fortified milk or margarine, eggs, liver, sardines. (dairy products)
VITAMIN E OTHER NAMES: Alpha-tocopherol; Antioxidant (detoxification of strong oxidants) stabilization of cell membranes, regulations of oxidation reactions, PUFA and vitamin A. Prevents scar tissue formation. Fat soluble and stored in the liver, fatty tissues, heart, muscles, testes, uterus, blood, adrenal and pituitary glands. Enhances activity of vitamin A. An active antioxidant, prevents oxidation of fat compounds as well as that of vitamin A, selenium, two sulfur amino acids and some vitamin C. Selenium increase E's potency. Polyunsaturated plant oils(margarine, salad dressings, green and leafy vegetables, wheat germ, whole grain products, nuts, seeds. (Inorganic iron (ferrous sulfate) destroys vitamin E)
VITAMIN K OTHER NAMES: Phylloquinone, napthloquinone; Synthesis of blood-clotting proteis and a blood protein that regulates blood calcium. Fat soluble. Essential in the formation of prothrombin, a blood- clotting chemical. Bacterial synthesis in the digestive tract; liver, green leafy vegetables, cabbage-type vegetables, milk, yogurt, egg yolk, alfalfa, kelp, and soybean oil.
VITAMIN B1 (Thiamine) Part of a coenzyme used in energy metabolism. Supports normal appetite and nervous system function. Anti Beri -beri, heart health, sense of well being. Water soulble. Being synergistic, works best with other B vitamins. Occurs in all nutritious foods in moderate amounts; pork, ham, bacon, liver, whole grains, legumes, nuts.
VITAMIN B2 (Riboflavin) Part of coenzyme used in energy metabolism; supports normal vision and skin health. Part of coenzyme used in energy metabolism; supports normal vision and skin health. Milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, meat, leafy green vegetables, whole-grain or enriched breads and cereals.
NIACIN (B3) Part of a coenzyme used in energy meatabolism; supports skin health, system, and digestive system. Water soluble and a member of the B- complex family. Using the amino acid trytophan, the body can manufacture its own niacin. (if one is not deficient in B1, B2, B6) Milk, eggs, meat, poultry, fish, whole-grain and enriched breads and cereals, nuts and all protein-containing foods.
VITAMIN B6 (Pyridoxine) Part of a coenzyme used in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism. Helps convert the amino acid; trytophan to niacin and helps make red blood cells. Part of a coenzyme used in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism. Helps convert the amino acid; trytophan to niacin and helps make red blood cells. Green and leafy vegetables, meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, legumes, fruits, whole grains. Brewer's yeast, wheat bran, oats, peanuts, walnuts, liver, unmilled rice.
VITAMIN B5 (Pantothenic Acid) Part of a coenzyme used in energy metabolism Water soluble. Another member of the B- complex. Works best with other B vitamins. Meat, whole grains, wheat germ, bran, liver, chicken, nuts.
BIOTIN (coenzyme R or vitamin H) Part of a coenzyme used in energy metabolism, fat synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and glycogen synthesis. Water soluble, sulfur containing. Another member of the B complex family. Synthesis of absorbic acid requires biotin. Synergistic with B2, B6, niacin, and A. Beef liver, egg yolk, soy flour, milk, unpolished rice and kidney.
VITAMIN C (absorbic acid) Collagen synthesis (strengthens blood vessel walls, forms scar tissue, matrix for bone growth), antioxidant thyroxine synthesis, amino acid meatbolism, strengthens resistance to infection, helps in absorption of iron. All protective mechanisms. Water soluble. Helps in the body's absorption of iron. Works best with bioflavinoids, calsium and magnesium. Citrus fruits, cabbage-type vegetables, dark green vegetables, cantaloupe, strawberries, peppers, lettuce, tomatoes, potatoes, papayas, mangoes.
CHOLINE One of the few substances able to penetrate the so-called blood-brain barrier, which ordinarily protects the brain against variations in the daily diet, and go directly into the brain cells to produce a chemical that aids memory. Helps control cholesterol buildup. Ads in the sending of nerve impulses, specifically those in the brain used in the formation of memory. Helps eliminate poisons and drugs from your system in aiding the liver. Aid's in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. A member of the B-complex family and a lipotropic (fat emulsifier) Works with inositol (another B-complex member) to utilize fats and cholesterol. If you are taking lecithin, you probably need a chelated calcium supplement to keep your phosphorous and calcium in balance, since choline seems to increase the body's phosphorous. Egg yolks, bran, green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, wheat germ, and in small amounts, in lecithin.
VITMAIN B13 (Orotic Acid) Possibly prevent certain liver problems and premature aging. Metabolizes folic acid and vitamin B12. Root vegetables, whey, the liquid portion of soured or curdled milk.
VITAMIN B15 (Pangamic Acid) Water soluble. Works much like vitamin E in that it is an anti-oxidant. Extends cell life span. Protects against pollutants. Protects the liver against cirrhosis. Stimulates immunity response. Aids in protein synthesis. Action is often improved by being taken with vitamins A and E. Brewer's yeast, whole grains, whole brown rice, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds.
INOSITOL Metabolizes fats and cholesterol. Helps lower cholesterol levels. Promotes healthy hair. Aids in preventing eczema. Aids in redistribution of body fat. Water soluble, another member of the B complex and a lipotropic. Combines with choline to form lecithin. Works best with other B vitamins and choline. Helps maximize effect of vitamin E. Water soluble, another member of the B complex and a lipotropic. Combines with choline to form lecithin. Works best with other B vitamins and choline. Helps maximize effect of vitamin E.
PABA Helps form folic acid and is important in the utilization of protein. Has important sunscreening properties. Helps in the assimilation--and therefor the effectiveness--of panthothenic acid. Water soluble. One of the newer members of the B complex. Works best with the other B vitamins. Paba combined with folic acid return graying hair to natural color. Liver, Brewer's yeast, kidney, whole grains, rice, bran, wheat germ, and molasses.